2013 UNHCR country operations profile - Somalia
In Somalia, a new President has been inaugurated and a Prime Minister appointed to form a new Government. These positive developments come after a particularly testing time for the country which, just a year ago, was faced with an unprecedented famine affecting millions of Somalis, as well as military interventions by the African Union (AMISOM) in support of governmental forces fighting insurgents. The conflict witnessed in 2012 also created political and security vacuums often with a negative impact on civilian protection.
However, the relative stability that followed the ousting of the insurgents from their last main stronghold has improved humanitarian access to some areas, including Mogadishu.
UNHCR is making every effort to be responsive to the changing dynamics in Somalia, taking advantage of windows of opportunity for access, and the growing hopes amongst internally displaced people (IDPs) to return home.
There are currently some 1.4 million IDPs and 10,600 asylum-seekers and refugees in Somalia.
UNHCR will be working to provide refugees with protection and assistance, through mixed-migration tracking and monitoring, sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) prevention and response, alternative-livelihood projects to mitigate protection risks, protection advocacy, and capacity building. As of October 2012, some 2,200 refugees and 8,500 asylum-seekers, predominantly of Ethiopian origin, live in urban areas. They suffer from the lack of sustainable livelihood opportunities and viable durable solutions, and they often face discrimination in accessing services and hostility from host communities.
Within the framework of the cluster system, UNHCR's interventions for IDPs in Somalia will focus on protection and the provision of core relief items and emergency shelter. Access to basic needs remains a challenge. The majority of IDPs lack adequate shelter, access to food, health care, education, and live in poor sanitary conditions.
Living in unprotected and congested IDP settlements, women and girls are particularly exposed to sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and are often denied access to assistance by IDP committee leaders or to adequate legal redress. SGBV perpetrators often live in impunity, due to a weak formal justice system. Improving access to justice will be a key concern.
While the conditions in places of origin may not yet be fully conducive for returns, there has been a growing interest among IDPs, often prompted by factors such as overcrowding in IDP settlements, difficulties in accessing socio-economic activities in places of displacement, and more recently, the success of military interventions in liberating some areas previously under the control of insurgents. It is anticipated that 100,000 IDP households may want to return to their area of origin in 2013.
UNHCR envisages providing return/reintegration packages to help increase the resilience of IDPs and mitigate the risks associated with spontaneous return.
|UNHCR 2013 planning figures for Somalia|
|TYPE OF POPULATION||ORIGIN||JAN 2013||DEC 2013|
|TOTAL IN COUNTRY||OF WHOM ASSISTED
|TOTAL IN COUNTRY||OF WHOM ASSISTED
Main objectives and targets for 2013
INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS
Basic needs and essential services
The population of concern is sufficiently supplied with basic items.
Household goods are provided to 90,000 households.
Shelter and infrastructure are established, improved and maintained.
Emergency shelter is provided to 20,000 households.
Security from violence and exploitation
Measures to protect people of concern from the effects of armed conflict are strengthened.
The situation of persons of concern is monitored through the protection monitoring network.
The risk of SGBV is reduced and the quality of the response to it is improved.
Survivors of sexual violence have prompt access to appropriate physical, legal and psychological support.
All victims of SGBV have access to medical treatment.
The potential for voluntary return is realized.
All returnees receive assistance.
REFUGEES AND ASYLUM-SEEKERS IN URBAN AREAS
Basic needs and essential services
The health of the population is improved.
Access to primary health care is provided to all refugees.
The population has optimal access to education.
All children of the appropriate age attend primary school.
Fair protection processes and documentation
Access to status determination procedures is improved.
Status determination procedures are implemented in Puntland and Somaliland.
The quality of registration and profiling is improved or maintained.
All persons of concern benefit from profiling and registration.
The potential for resettlement is realized.
Emergency resettlement benefits exceptionally vulnerable individuals. Candidates for resettlement, including women and girls at risk, are identified and their resettlement facilitated.
Strategy and activities in 2013
In Somalia, UNHCR will reinforce its advocacy for unhindered access to the territory for asylum-seekers, respect of fair asylum procedures and protection against refoulement. Particular attention will be paid to women, children, young people and other groups with special needs, with an emphasis on the implementation of UNHCR's updated strategy guidelines, Action against Sexual and Gender-Based Violence.
For the refugee populations in Somaliland and Puntland, UNHCR will focus on the implementation of UNHCR's policy on refugee protection and durable solutions in urban areas, with special emphasis on registration/documentation, community outreach, access to basic services and the provision of material needs. In Mogadishu, the urban refugee policy will also be applied to help a small number of Tanzanian refugees from Zanzibar. UNHCR will facilitate their voluntary repatriation, as was the case in 2012. In addition, provided there is steady rebuilding of State institutions, UNHCR will assist the central authorities to establish a viable asylum framework.
Concerted action is required to address the continuing problem of mixed migratory flows from Somalia and the alarming death toll amongst people attempting to undertake the perilous crossing of the Gulf of Aden. UNHCR will continue to use the Mixed Migration Task Force framework to encourage all stakeholders to take a common approach to identifying people of concern in these situations and to provide them with appropriate protection and assistance.
The Office will contribute to inter-agency efforts within the cluster framework to improve the conditions of IDPs, improve their resilience and help them find durable solutions. Continuing partnerships with development agencies, such as FAO, will be critical in order to integrate a resilience component in programming. UNHCR has spearheaded the first initiative of this kind in the course of 2012 and so far has been able to support the return of some 700 households (more than 2,000 individuals).
In the areas of non-food items (NFIs) and shelter, the focus will be primarily on the provision of enhanced assistance packages and kits for transitional shelters.
Permanent shelters will be constructed where land tenure is secure, both as a durable solution for selected IDP populations and to promote local integration. UNHCR will expand its partnership with development players to ensure that communities receiving IDPs also benefit from long-term interventions, thereby promoting conditions conducive to sustainable return.
Throughout Somalia, UNHCR will maintain its capacity to track displacements, monitor the protection situation and analyze data for the wider humanitarian community through its population movement tracking and protection monitoring network tools.
Robust SGBV interventions will be required to address and alleviate the problems women and girls are facing, and to establish mechanisms for accountability and sanctions. Reported cases of SGBV will be addressed in a timely manner, cases will be documented and the quality of assistance (medical, legal, psychosocial) improved.
Additional support for vulnerable women and girls will be provided through livelihood activities. Solar lights will be installed in key risk locations.
Although anti-Government forces have been dislodged from major towns, the security situation is still fragile and humanitarian access remains limited in some areas. More flexible funding support for Somalia at the country level is necessary to facilitate the operational response in a highly unpredictable environment.
Organization and implementation
Interventions for IDPs are coordinated within the cluster system which falls within the overall humanitarian coordination architecture for Somalia.
UNHCR coordinates the NFIs/emergency shelter and protection clusters. In 2012, UNHCR has worked with some 40 partners to implement projects for IDPs.
Partnerships with local NGOs with proven ability are vital and have been particularly necessary in conflict-sensitive programming. In both Puntland and Somaliland, there are three partners covering health, education and legal aid for refugees, and in Somaliland UNHCR also works with the Ministry of the Interior to build its capacity on asylum matters.
The Somalia operation's budget requirements have increased since 2007 to respond to the growing numbers of IDPs, especially in the South-Central region of Somalia. The number of refugees has remained relatively stable. In 2013, UNHCR's financial requirements will amount to USD 55.3 million, as compared to USD 48.6 million in 2012. This increase is mainly due to expected changes on the ground, including growing numbers of IDP returns.
Source: UNHCR Global Appeal 2013 Update