Hepatitis E toll rises to more than 100 in South Sudan refugee camps

Briefing Notes, 15 February 2013

This is a summary of what was said by UNHCR spokesperson Adrian Edwards to whom quoted text may be attributed at the press briefing, on 15 February 2013, at the Palais des Nations in Geneva.

In South Sudan UNHCR is seeing a large number of Hepatitis E cases in refugee camps near the border with Sudan. Hepatitis E is in endemic in the region, but among refugees has contaminated 6,017 people and led to 111 deaths since July, according to figures compiled by UNHCR, the South Sudanese government, and the World Health Organization (WHO).

The largest number of cases and suspected cases is in the Yusuf Batil camp in Upper Nile State, which accounts for 3,937 cases, or almost 70 percent of the total, and 77 deaths. The camp currently holds 37,229 refugees.

Jamam Camp, also in Upper Nile State, has recorded 1,320 cases and 25 deaths, followed by the Gendrassa Camp with 577 cases and three deaths. In Doro Camp 58 cases have been recorded thus far, including two deaths.

Further west, in Unity State, the situation is less dramatic. 125 cases or suspected cases and four deaths have been recorded at the Yida site, which with a population of 65,541 people holds the largest concentration of refugees in South Sudan.

The majority of refugees in camps where the disease is most widespread are from Blue Nile State, an isolated rural area in Sudan where there are few established toilet facilities and uncontaminated water is not readily available. UNHCR believes the growth in the population due to the refugee influx from Blue Nile could be one of the factors in the rapid spread of the disease.

While there is no treatment or WHO approved vaccine for Hepatitis E, the risk of being infected can be dramatically reduced by washing hands with soap, especially after using the toilet, drinking clean water, using latrines, and avoiding eating uncooked fruits and vegetables. Hepatitis E is a virus that damages the liver, and is transmitted by consuming contaminated food or water.

Emergency measures are being taken to curb the increase, with about 70 percent of the 701 latrines under construction in Yusuf Batil completed and the remainder expected to be operating by this weekend. In the Doro Camp region, 65 per cent of the 323 latrines being built in the most affected areas around the Jumjum and Ingasana villages have been completed thus far.

Other steps being taken include additional soap distribution at Yusuf Batil comprising 168,000 bars, more than doubling the monthly rate of 250 grams per month per person. Further soap distributions, especially for washing hands, will continue to be carried out.

Plans are under way to replace about 22,000 10-liter capacity jerry cans household water containers which can become a source of infection if filled with contaminated water. An additional 5,000 buckets are also being shipped to Yusuf Batil and a supplemental borehole is currently being drilled.

Additional measures include enhanced disease surveillance, water chlorination, and an intensive health and hygiene promotion campaign in markets, schools, and at the household level.

In South Sudan, there are currently 112,981 Sudanese refugees in Upper Nile State, and 67,233 in Unity State.

For further information on this topic, please contact:

  • In Nairobi (Regional), Kitty McKinsey on mobile +254 735 337 608
  • In Juba, Eduardo Cue on mobile + 211 920 001 048
  • In Geneva, Fatoumata Lejeune-Kaba on mobile +41 79 249 3483



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Public Health

The health of refugees and other displaced people is a priority for UNHCR.

Health crisis in South Sudan

There are roughly 105,000 refugees in South Sudan's Maban County. Many are at serious health risk. UNHCR and its partners are working vigorously to prevent and contain the outbreak of malaria and several water-borne diseases.

Most of the refugees, especially children and the elderly, arrived at the camps in a weakened condition. The on-going rains tend to make things worse, as puddles become incubation areas for malaria-bearing mosquitoes. Moderately malnourished children and elderly can easily become severely malnourished if they catch so much as a cold.

The problems are hardest felt in Maban County's Yusuf Batil camp, where as many as 15 per cent of the children under 5 are severely malnourished.

UNHCR and its partners are doing everything possible to prevent and combat illness. In Yusuf Batil camp, 200 community health workers go from home to home looking educating refugees about basic hygene such as hand washing and identifying ill people as they go. Such nutritional foods as Plumpy'nut are being supplied to children who need them. A hospital dedicated to the treatment of cholera has been established. Mosquito nets have been distributed throughout the camps in order to prevent malaria.

Health crisis in South Sudan

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Bonga camp is located in the troubled Gambella region of western Ethiopia. But it remains untouched by the ethnic conflicts that have torn nearby Gambella town and Fugnido camp in the last year.

For Bonga's 17,000 Sudanese refugees, life goes on despite rumblings in the region. Refugee children continue with school and play while their parents make ends meet by supplementing UNHCR assistance with self-reliance projects.

Cultural life is not forgotten, with tribal ceremonies by the Uduk majority. Other ethnic communities – Shuluks, Nubas and Equatorians – are welcome too, judging by how well hundreds of newcomers have settled in after their transfer from Fugnido camp in late 2002.

Bonga Camp, Ethiopia

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