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Nowhere to hide from climate change in Kenyan refugee camp

News Stories, 18 December 2009

© UNHCR/B.Bannon
At the Mercy of the Elements: Children run through floodwater at one of the Dadaab camps.

DADAAB, Kenya, December 18 (UNHCR) Dulane Jama and his family suffered in silence for three years in a remote corner of eastern Ethiopia before he finally decided to go and look for a safe place to live before they all died.

After an arduous and dangerous trek across Somalia, he ended up about four months ago at Dadaab, a sprawling and overcrowded refugee complex in north-east Kenya housing almost 300,000 refugees. Most are Somalis who have fled conflict or persecution in their troubled homeland.

Dulane is slightly different he and his family have been forced to flee by climate change and general insecurity. But more and more people are fleeing for a similar mix of reasons.

Conflict in the region, especially in Somalia, has made it more difficult to manage the effects of climate change. Demand for precious and scarce resources such as water and grazing land is leading to conflict, followed by displacement, more environmental degradation and more conflict.

The 44-year-old Dulane is a member of the Marehan, an ethnic Somali clan whose members live all over the region. He, his wife and their 12 children raised livestock near the town of Korahay, close to the border with Somalia. Then one day, the rains stopped coming and life became harder and harder.

"There have been drought conditions in Ethiopia for the past three years," he said with a bitter smile. "Originally I had 50 camels, 30 cattle and 35 sheep and goats, but they are all dead now," Dulane added. The situation was dire, so he decided to make his way to Somalia and then get the family to follow, but because of the general insecurity he ended up going all the way to Dadaab.

Dulane realized that the weather was at the root of most of his problems, but he had no idea that the abnormal weather conditions were due to climate change. Indeed, he had no idea what climate change meant.

And having escaped his drought-ridden home region and reached Dadaab, he and his family now face another feature of climate change flooding. Meteorologists fear that torrential El Nino rains, a phenomenon caused by the periodic warming of the oceans, will once more cause widespread flooding over a wide area in eastern Africa this year and in early 2010.

UNHCR and its partners are on an emergency preparedness footing for the potential effects of flooding, including the mass outbreak of diarrhoea, water-borne diseases and cholera in the congested camps. El Nino rains have struck Dadaab before, causing turmoil and destruction in 1997, 2003 and 2006 and causing people to move to safer areas.

Meanwhile, much of northern Kenya, is suffering from the same drought affecting Dulane's home area in Ethiopia and parts of south-central Somalia. Kenya's Crisis Response Centre reported earlier this month that 3.8 million Kenyans were facing starvation as a result of a lack of rain over the past two years.

Extreme climatic events such as flooding, soaring heat, storms and drought are on the rise in Africa. Temperature increase and its effect on crop production has been linked to an upsurge in conflict in Africa over the past decade.

Dealing with extreme climate conditions and their after-effects is often beyond the scope and capacity of humanitarian agencies, but UNHCR and its partners are working hard to mitigate the short-term effects in places like Dadaab while also putting in place more long-term strategic projects.

"UNHCR is addressing the immediate El Nino response needs by sandbagging vital areas of the camps, such as tapstands, boreholes, hospitals and health posts, as well as improving drainage in critical locations," explained UNHCR's Dinesh Shrestha, a water and climate specialist who recently spent two months in Dadaab.

He added that the refugee agency was investigating longer-term strategic projects, including reforestation, water harvesting and the possibility of using water from swamps, dams and shallow wells to meet the needs of livestock kept by the refugees and by the local communities around Dadaab.

"These projects require time, effort and donor support," noted Dinesh, who was in Dadaab's Ifo camp on December 16 when a two-hour downpour left areas of the camp under many feet of water and forced refugees to stow their aid packs up trees and make their way through waist-high water.

Meanwhile, Dulane's mind is on the present and he takes a pragmatic approach to the possibility of floods. "If it is the will of God that this happens, then it will happen."

By Andy Needham in Dadaab, Kenya

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UNHCR country pages

Crisis in Horn of Africa

Tens of thousands of Somalis are fleeing conflict and drought into Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya.

Climate Change

The earth's climate is changing, and that concerns us as it could lead to displacement.

UNHCR and Climate Change

Where people flee, UNHCR is there to help.

Climate Change Policy Paper

Climate change, natural disasters and human displacement: a UNHCR perspective.

Climate change and displacement

In the past few years, millions of people have been displaced by natural disasters, most of which are considered to be the direct result of climate change. Sudden weather events, such as Myanmar's Cyclone Nargis in 2008, widespread flooding in Kenya's Dadaab refugee camps in 2006 and the drought that hit Ethiopia in the 1980s, can leave huge numbers of people traumatized and without access to shelter, clean water and basic supplies.

The international community has entrusted UNHCR with responsibility for protecting and assisting people who are forcibly displaced and who cannot return safely home. Although the majority of people displaced by climate change will remain within their own borders, where states have clearly defined responsibilities, additional support may be required.

When called upon to intervene, UNHCR can deploy emergency teams and provide concrete support in terms of registration, documentation, family reunification and the provision of shelter, basic hygiene and nutrition.

Among those who are displaced across borders as a result of climate change, some will be refugees while others may not meet the definition. Nevertheless, many may be in need of protection and assistance.

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Flood Airdrop in Kenya

Over the weekend, UNHCR with the help of the US military began an emergency airdrop of some 200 tonnes of relief supplies for thousands of refugees badly hit by massive flooding in the Dadaab refugee camps in northern Kenya.

In a spectacular sight, 16 tonnes of plastic sheeting, mosquito nets, tents and blankets, were dropped on each run from the C-130 transport plane onto a site cleared of animals and people. Refugees loaded the supplies on trucks to take to the camps.

Dadaab, a three-camp complex hosting some 160,000 refugees, mainly from Somalia, has been cut off from the world for a month by heavy rains that washed away the road connecting the remote camps to the Kenyan capital, Nairobi. Air transport is the only way to get supplies into the camps.

UNHCR has moved 7,000 refugees from Ifo camp, worst affected by the flooding, to Hagadera camp, some 20 km away. A further 7,000 refugees have been moved to higher ground at a new site, called Ifo 2.

Posted in December 2006

Flood Airdrop in Kenya

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When UNHCR Goodwill Ambassador Angelina Jolie visited Dadaab in north-east Kenya on September 12, 2009, she saw first-hand some of the tough conditions that tens of thousands of refugees must live in. The overcrowded three-camp complex is home to more than 285,000 mainly Somali refugees, making it the largest refugee settlement in the world. The camps were established in the early 1990s and were intended for a maximum of 90,000 people. Up to 7,000 people are now arriving every month to escape continuing conflict in Somalia. Jolie talked to residents about their daily life and their exile. These images show her meetings with the refugees of Dadaab and show some of the conditions they live in. Aside from overcrowding, they face water shortages, crammed classrooms, health problems, the coming rainy season and a range of other difficulties. UNHCR hopes new land will be allocated soon for the new arrivals.

Dire Times in Dadaab

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