• Text size Normal size text | Increase text size by 10% | Increase text size by 20% | Increase text size by 30%

Weaving a refugee legacy into Botswana's baskets

News Stories, 25 April 2005

© UNHCR/M.Sunjic
The women brought their basket&;weaving skills from Angola while they learned about patterns and dyeing in Botswana.

ETSHA, Botswana, April 25 (UNHCR) Tourists visiting Botswana invariably buy some of the colourful baskets on offer in crafts shops to take home as souvenirs. Little do they know that these baskets are the material proof of one of the most successful refugee integration stories in southern Africa. The baskets are made by women whose parents and grandparents came to the country as refugees from Angola. They brought with them traditional basket-weaving skills and combined them with the dyes and colourful patterns that are part of Botswana's culture.

The history of Etsha settlement in north-western Botswana dates back to 1967 when 3,300 refugees from the Hambukushu tribe in southern Angola crossed into Botswana, fleeing Portuguese attacks during Angola's war of independence. In those days, Portuguese forces used to attack villages, burn the houses and take the livestock away, leaving the Hambukushu without any means of subsistence and finally forcing them to leave their territories.

The first arrivals in Botswana were recorded in December 1967. Reverend Wynne, a priest who worked with the refugees for many years, describes how they came in a terrible state: "They were naked except for a rough cloth covering their middle. The women had simple traditional ornaments and carried a plaited screen mat, a bundle with a few things and a water pot on their heads."

The refugees had nothing to eat but wild fruits in the bush. Emaciated and weakened by war and famine, many people died of sleeping sickness. In order to survive, the refugees looked for work among the Bayeye people who were traditionally farming the Etsha region of northern Botswana.

When the Hambukushu first arrived in Botswana, they were met by a wave of overwhelming hospitality and support. In order to give the newly-arrived refugees a status in Botswana, the Paramount Chief of the Batawana, Letsholatebe, adopted them as members of his tribe and allocated them land. The refugees were settled in 13 villages.

The UN launched an emergency feeding programme, provided agricultural tools and seeds while the national Red Cross helped with medicine. The Botswana government sent an agricultural expert to train the Hambukushu on how to farm on a soil and in a climate foreign to them. The District Council financed the building of a school. Literacy training for children and adults was organised.

So a joint effort took place to helped turn a desperate group of uprooted people into the thriving community of Etsha today. The Hambukushu are resourceful people, they grow maize, pumpkins and watermelons and occupy themselves with brick-making, bee-keeping, and reed trade. But above all, they are known for their basket-making skills.

The elaborate baskets are made of palm fibre that is dyed with roots or bark to achieve different shades of brown, orange and cream. They sell their baskets to the Botswana Council of Churches (BCC), which sells them to craft traders in Botswana and abroad. These baskets are of high quality and beautiful design and are among the finest pieces of craft produced in Africa.

Katutu has been working in the basket project for five years. On behalf of the BCC, she receives the order, buys the basket from the women in the village and prepares the shipments to the capital. She also supervises the basket shop in Etsha.

The integration of these former refugees in Botswana is so thorough, that the young women in the shop are not at all interested in answering questions about the past. They prefer to talk about the baskets that put them on the world map. They are particularly proud of the fact that one of the Etsha women represented them at an international Black Arts Festival held during the Atlanta Olympic Games in 1994.

Each basket is a unique piece of art and therefore carries a tag with the name of the woman who made it. Katutu explains that the patterns have colourful names such as "running ostrich", "zebra's forehead", "shield" and "clay pot".

As the women of Etsha proudly show their products, the plight of the former Angolan refugees seems like only a distant myth of the past.

© UNHCR/M.Sunjic
Baskets of all shapes and sizes are sold in Etsha. Each basket is unique and carries the name of the woman who made it.

Today, the young generation of Hambukushu in Etsha is blissfully unaware of the early suffering of their grandparents and parents. They have nice brick houses, a few cars, a church and a school. In addition to the 300 to 400 women who weave baskets, some of the men work in the mines while others are farmers. They belong to the area and never felt like foreigners, although they know that their families migrated from Angola.

Currently, the last 377 inhabitants of Etsha are receiving their Botswana identity documents. But this is only an act of paperwork that remains to be completed. The villagers have regarded themselves as Botswana citizens for a long time already, as have the authorities and the local community.

By Melita H. Sunjic in Etsha, Botswana




UNHCR country pages

Forty Years On, Antonio Goes Home to Angola

Antonio has been waiting 40 years to return to his home village in northern Angola. He fled to Democratic Republic of the Congo when the country was a Portuguese colony, and stayed away through years of civil war and during the peace that followed in 2002. Now, no longer classed as a refugee, he is finally going back.

Seated in a rickety chair in his family's rented apartment in Kinshasa on the eve of his departure, the 66-year-old Angolan was excited. "I feel joy when I think that I will go home. It's better to be a citizen of your own country than a refugee in another country. It's liberation," he said, flanked by his wife, sister and granddaughter.

Photographer Brian Sokol followed the four of them as they began their journey in Kinshasa on August 19, taking a seven-hour train journey to the town of Kimpese in Bas-Congo province and then reaching the border by bus. They were among the first group to go back home with the help of UNHCR under a third and final voluntary repatriation programme since 2002. The family faces many new challenges in Angola, but their joy was far greater than any apprehension. "I will dance when we arrive at the border," said Antonio's sister, Maria. UNHCR is organizing the return of nearly 30,000 former refugees to Angola.

Forty Years On, Antonio Goes Home to Angola

UNHCR resumes return operation for 43,000 Angolans in DR Congo

The UN refugee agency has resumed a voluntary repatriation programme for Angolan refugees living in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Some 43,000 Angolans have said they want to go back home under a project that was suspended four years ago for various reasons. A first group of 252 Angolan civilians left the UNHCR transit centre in the western DRC town of Kimpese on November 4, 2011 They crossed the border a few hours later and were warmly welcomed by officials and locals in Mbanza Congo. In the first two weeks of the repatriation operation, more than 1,000 Angolan refugees returned home from the DRC provinces of Bas-Congo in the west and Katanga in the south. Out of some 113,000 Angolan refugees living in neighbouring countries, 80,000 are hosted by the DRC.

UNHCR resumes return operation for 43,000 Angolans in DR Congo

Photo Gallery: The Challenge of Forced Displacement in Africa

Africa is the continent most affected by the tragedy of forced displacement. While millions of refugees were able to return to Angola, Burundi, Liberia, Rwanda and South Sudan over the last 15 years, the numbers of internally displaced people continued to grow. At the beginning of 2009, in addition to some 2.3 million refugees, an estimated 11.6 million people were internally displaced by conflict in Africa.

To address forced displacement on the continent, the African Union is organizing a special summit on refugees, returnees and internally displaced people from October 19-23 in the Ugandan capital, Kampala. Heads of state and government will look at the challenges and at ways to find solutions to forced displacement. They are also expected to adopt a Convention for the protection and assistance of internally displaced people (IDP) in Africa, which would be the first legally binding instrument on internal displacement with a continental scope. This photo gallery looks at some of the forcibly displaced around Africa, many of whom are helped by UNHCR.

Photo Gallery: The Challenge of Forced Displacement in Africa

Almost Home Play video

Almost Home

Former Angolan refugees, in exile for as many as three decades, are given the opportunity to locally integrate in neighboring Zambia with the help of UNHCR and the Zambian Government.
Angola: Home At LastPlay video

Angola: Home At Last

On April 4th, Angola will celebrate five years of peace. The decades-long war is over, but establishing peace has not been easy. UNHCR has been instrumental in bringing Angolans back home, helping them re-start their lives and renew ties with their communities.