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Refugees Magazine Issue 107 (Refugee voices from exile) - Home from home

Refugees Magazine, 1 March 1997

A 1996 UNHCR survey revealed that since 1989 more than 9 million people have been displaced within or between CIS countries, as a result of conflicts, environmental disasters or a range of fears and pressures arising from the sudden and unprecedented disintegration of a single state the USSR into 15 separate ones. The five Central Asian republics were particularly badly affected with more than 4.2 million people on the move an astonishing one in 12 of the region's inhabitants. Behind these awesome statistics lie countless painful and poignant individual stories of people whose personal lives have been thrown into turmoil by the extraordinary historical legacy left behind by the former Soviet Union.

Alexander and Raya Vazun, a couple born in Kazakstan, are just two of the more than 2 million ethnic Russians who moved from Central Asia to their ethnic "homeland" because of a mixture of economic and other fears. After 21 months in the Russian Federation, the Vazuns returned disillusioned and impoverished to their parents' home in Talgarsky Rayon, Kazakstan, with their two young children.

Interviews by Rupert Colville

Alexander Vazun, aged 28:
"We were born in Kazakstan. We had lived here all our lives and had lots of friends. But life became really hard after the country became independent so we went to Russia with the idea of improving our situation.

We moved to Ulan Ude City in the Buryatskaya region of Siberia in February 1992 because we thought life would be better there, that it would be easy to find a job and a house, to earn some money.

My older brother had moved to Ulan Ude about 10 years ago. He is a tractor driver working in a collective farm that produces mink and fox fur. When the Soviet Union existed the collective farm was financed by the central government but when the USSR collapsed the farm suddenly didn't even have enough money to buy food for the animals. My brother was lucky because by then he had his own house and land and poultry. He still believed he would be able to help us if we joined him, but it turned out differently.

Everything was collapsing when we arrived. I am a heavy goods truck driver and thought it would be easy to find work. But there were many people already without jobs and there was no money to pay salaries or buy food. I did eventually find a job as a driver but soon resigned because I wasn't being paid.

Then I was employed to kill farm animals by lethal injection but I was paid in fur rather than money. The official price for a pelt was 175,000 rubles ($34) and my official salary was 300,000 rubles ($59) so they gave me two pelts a month. But when I took the furs to market I could only get 7,000 rubles ($1.40) a pelt. So I was only getting 14,000 rubles ($2.80) a month. Raya also found a little work, but for even less money on the farm.

In addition, the local people did not accept us. They were unfriendly, even hostile."

Raya Vazun, aged 26:
"At work, the local people were jealous that newcomers tended to work harder and earn more money. Their standards of work were very low. It's beyond words how much they drink. The Buryat people [the original non-Russian inhabitants] were friendly. It was just the other Russians who were hostile to us."

Alexander Vazun:
"Luckily, we had not sold our house in Kazakstan because our parents were still here. We returned in November 1994. Eventually I found a job driving a small lorry for a transport company. I still haven't received my salary and even when I do I don't think it will be enough for my family to live on. We're planning to buy some pigs and chickens to help us survive. At the moment, we live off my father's salary and my mother's pension."

Raya Vazun:
"Even though we're Russians, when we returned here I felt that we were home. In Russia, we were strangers. When I came back my friends and neighbours said 'Have you come back for ever?' I said yes. I was really happy to be back. But I can't find any work. Many enterprises are closed. There's no longer any money to finance them. But still the economic situation, our economic situation, is better here than it was in Ulan Ude."

Source: Refugees Magazine Issue 107 (1997)




UNHCR country pages

Displacement in Georgia

Tens of thousands of civilians are living in precarious conditions, having been driven from their homes by the crisis in the breakaway Georgian region of South Ossetia.

On the morning of August 12, the first UNHCR-chartered plane carrying emergency aid arrived in the Georgian capital Tbilisi, the first UN assistance to arrive in the country since fighting broke out the previous week. The airlift brought in 34 tonnes of tents, jerry cans, blankets and kitchen sets from UNHCR's central emergency stockpile in Dubai. Items were then loaded onto trucks at the Tbilisi airport for transport and distribution.

A second UNHCR flight landed in Tbilisi on August 14, with a third one expected to arrive the following day. In addition, two UNHCR aid flights are scheduled to leave for Vladikavkaz in the Russian Federation the following week with mattresses, water tanks and other supplies for displaced South Ossetians.

Working with local partners, UNHCR is now providing assistance to the most vulnerable and needy. These include many young children and family members separated from one another. The situation is evolving rapidly and the refugee agency is monitoring the needs of the newly displaced population, which numbered some 115,000 on August 14.

Posted on 15 August 2008

Displacement in Georgia

Ingushetia: Internally Displaced Chechens

When fighting broke out between government troops and rebel forces in Chechnya in 1999, over 200,000 people fled the republic, most of them to the neighbouring republic of Ingushetia. Today, tens of thousands of Chechens remain displaced in Ingushetia, unwilling to go home because of continuing security concerns.

As of early December 2003, some 62,000 displaced Chechens were living in temporary settlements or in private accommodation. Those living in settlements face constant threats of eviction, often by owners who wish to use their buildings again.

Another 7,900 displaced Chechens live in tents in three remaining camps – Satsita, Sputnik, and Bart.

The authorities have repeatedly called for the closure of tent camps and the return of the displaced people to Chechnya. Three camps have been closed in the past year – Iman camp at Aki Yurt, "Bella" or B camp, and "Alina" or A camp. Chechens from the latter two camps who did not wish to go home were allowed to move to Satsita camp or other existing temporary settlements in Ingushetia.

Ingushetia: Internally Displaced Chechens

I Am StatelessPlay video

I Am Stateless

Railya was born in Kazakhstan but lost her nationality with the break-up of the Soviet Union.
Vincent Cochetel interviewPlay video

Vincent Cochetel interview

On the occasion of World Humanitarian Day 2010, a senior UNHCR staff member reflects on his experience being kidnapped near Chechnya in 1998.
UN High Commissioner Visits Georgia and RussiaPlay video

UN High Commissioner Visits Georgia and Russia

UN High Commissioner for Refugees António Guterres spent four days in Georgia and the Russian Federation to assess UNHCR's humanitarian operations and to speak with those affected by the recent fighting in the breakaway region of South Ossetia.